Will the National Knowledge resource bank be built after the CNKI incident?
The scholar won the lawsuit against CNKI, which aroused thousands of waves in the academic circle.From the focus on the case itself (Guangming Daily in-depth investigation!What do you want to do with CNKI?, to discuss the relationship of rights and responsibilities among authors, journals and database platforms (how to break out of the “strange circle of the Knowledge Net”?This newspaper has made continuous reports on this.Today, with the explosion of information and increasingly developed technological means, knowledge sharing is confronted with a “dilemma” : high level academic resources are overpaid, and free resources are of low quality.In this regard, many experts suggest that the government should lead the construction of national knowledge resource database to solve the problem of knowledge sharing.What problems should be paid attention to in the construction of national knowledge resource database and what experiences can be used for reference?Open access knowledge sharing model, how to enhance the appeal?Became a hot topic in academic circles.Journal papers are also national resources. Some people accept the compensation, apology and partial price reduction of CNKI, but some scholars believe that in the era of knowledge sharing, academic literature has been shelved by enterprise platforms and become expensive commodities, which is the opposite of the information age.Liu Chuang, deputy director of the Academic Journal center of the Institute of Geographic Resources of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and editorial director of the Journal of Global Change data, said: “The problems exposed by CNKI remind us that it is time for us to decide to build a national knowledge resource database and sharing platform with academic papers as its main content.”Such dilemmas have occurred before.”Since the 1990s, China’s science and technology community has focused on solving two strategic problems: first, scientific data is a national strategic resource and should be managed by the state;Secondly, in scientific data management, should we take the commercial road or the public welfare road?In the end, we chose to share scientific data for the public good.”Liu Chuang.In 2002, the Ministry of Science and Technology, the Ministry of Finance and other departments stepped in and began to plan to build a platform for basic science and technology conditions, in which researchers hand in all data of their research projects to promote the opening and sharing of scientific data in an orderly manner.Up to now, China has built 20 national science data centers, including the National High Energy Physical Science Data Center and the National Earth System Science Data Center.”Research results include research data and research papers.”If scientific data needs to be collected and protected, journal articles are both knowledge disseminators and national resources.”Liu chuang said.Fan Yongkun, an associate professor at Northeast Normal University, observed that primary and secondary school teachers who want to do research are embarrassed that they do not have the permission to download papers. “Most primary and secondary schools have not purchased THE SERVICE of CNKI.””Everyone has access to basic public services that are non-competitive, non-exclusive and not-for-profit, just as the government builds roads, parks and libraries.”Fan yongkun said, “Document services and management should not be overly centralized. The establishment of a national knowledge resource database can prevent some databases from being dominant and promote the popularization and sharing of resources.”Currently, the Library of Congress web site is free for anyone of any age, and researchers can search and download materials.”Some Chinese universities or research institutes receive government funding, but there is no formal channel for downloading many research papers for free,” fan said.”It takes patience to build a database. Even if the government takes the lead in building a database, it is very difficult to build a comprehensive and system-wide data content in a short time.”Fan Yongkun participated in the database construction of China Professional Degree Case Center of the Ministry of Education.”A competitive database must have a strong technology, management team and capital investment. This is the basic premise and the reason for THE rapid development of THE NETWORK.”He said.At present, many databases have their own characteristics or advantages, library library digital platform, you can check most of the electronic library books, new Oriental multimedia learning library is suitable for those who go abroad to learn English.How to locate the national knowledge resource database?”Pay attention to the distinction between basic services and specialty services.”Fan Yongkun believes that the basic service functions should be open to all users and should be free, convenient and equal to solve users’ public, basic and universal needs for literature query and download.For the special needs of some users, such as the re-examination service of dissertation and personalized literature analysis, “a certain service fee can be charged in accordance with the regulations”.”National knowledge databases should also have an open market awareness,” Fan said. “We should not give up eating for choking or take free for granted.”Rui Jianjiang, a professor at the school of Information Management at a double-top university in eastern China, believes that the lack of commercial competition and market drive makes it easy to make up the number of public knowledge products, leading to problems such as low quality, lack of supervision and delayed services.In the past, in the process of building some public knowledge data platforms, there appeared some “excessive database” and “stupid database” with low quality, poor service and low utilization rate.”We need to adopt similar pricing measures for infrastructure, form a filing and price control scheme, and strike a balance between public and commercial,” Rui said.Led by open access, digital publishing tolerates paid use started earlier in the West, and its commercialization path is clear. Elsevier and other internationally renowned digital publishing platforms have risen to prominence.”Japan faced a similar situation with digital publishing giants surrounding it,” Liu chuang said.In 1998, Japan Science and Technology Information Integration System (J-Stage) was developed and built by Japan Science and Technology Agency, which collects the literature published by Various Japanese science and technology societies. The subjects are divided into mathematics, communication and information science, synthesis, physics, automation, etc.As of January 2022, J-Stage has collected about 5.3 million articles from 3,453 journals, conference papers and research reports in 25 fields, among which 86% of academic journals and more than 95% of academic papers are fully open access.According to Liu chuong, j-Stage’s approach can be understood as the Japanese government funding the construction of a national, non-profit knowledge service platform with academic journals as the focus, open access as the leading, tolerant of paid use and open to the world.”The Japanese Nobel Prize winners have emerged in tandem with the open access knowledge sharing environment.”Liu chuang said.In 2012, THE Chinese Academy of Social Sciences established the National Philosophy and Social Sciences database to promote the public welfare use and open sharing of academic resources, and the public can download the results of papers funded by the National Social Science Foundation for free.The database was officially launched in 2013, but its influence still doesn’t match that of HOWKi.com.The User Attention Report of academic Journal Database of National Philosophy and Social Sciences Literature Center (2019) shows that the center has nearly 20 million online articles, with nearly 700 million clicks and more than 32 million downloads.”The average number of downloads per paper is 1.6, which is negligible.”In the opinion of Zeng Xiaowei, chief editor of a news and communication journal, “From the internal view of the industry, 100 times per article means’ low load ‘, while high-quality journal articles are downloaded on average, usually ranging from thousands to tens of thousands.”The journal zeng xiaowei works for is a high-quality journal, which is also included by CNKI and national Philosophy and Social Science database.For the number of downloads of a single paper, Zeng xiaowei’s psychological expectation is “more than 1,000”.”Most of the downloads of the journal’s content on The Website of China National Philosophy and Social Science Database are more than 10 times higher.”Zeng xiaowei said that cnKI and the journal currently use a “double free” model. Cnki does not have to pay for journals to get high-quality content.Journals also do not have to pay cnKI in exchange for the right to broadcast online.Compared with the one-sided public opinion, Zeng Xiaowei has a different opinion: “Instead of uploading the content of the journal’s papers, CNKI has designed a special submission platform, which can normally be completed within two days.However, papers submitted to the National Philosophy and Social Science Database can only be sent by snail mail, with a response a week later.Sometimes it takes half a month to go online.””In addition, CNKI also has a large pool of anonymous peer review experts, which is very useful in helping journals, especially weak ones.”Zeng Xiaowei thinks that the database capacity size, the number of users, whether the interface is friendly and scientific, market service and competition consciousness play an extremely important role.In June 2014, Liu chuang and his colleagues established the Global Change Scientific Research Data Publishing System, which has published more than 1,000 scientific data sets and 400 papers, collecting nearly 400,000 papers, all of which are open and shared under the principle of intellectual property rights protection.If the database is built, how to attract scholars to upload their works actively and take it as an academic sharing platform?This is a problem that all database operators face.Fan Yongkun said: “Database construction can not only build a platform, but not build a platform.If a national knowledge resource database is to be built, it should make clear provisions on the impact factors and guide authors and journals to take the initiative to share knowledge on this platform.”Academic communication includes not only academic knowledge dissemination, but also academic evaluation and other mechanisms.Rui said, “People rely heavily on CNKI because it has established an academic evaluation system, and many authors and journals measure academic influence by the results of being included, cited or downloaded by CNKI.””At the top level, journal papers should be encouraged to be uploaded to national knowledge resources databases and included in national evaluation systems such as the Excellence Initiative,” Liu suggested.”Excellence Program” is a national program with guidance in the field of academic journals in China. It is jointly implemented by seven departments including China Association for Science and Technology and the Ministry of Finance. Nearly 300 leading and key journals have been selected.High-quality platforms are evaluation-oriented and more likely to gather high-quality resources, among which influence factors are undoubtedly driving factors.”A scientific evaluation system should be gradually formed in the construction of national knowledge repositories to enhance the platform’s appeal and ensure high-quality knowledge papers continue to emerge,” Rui said.(Some interviewees in this article use pseudonyms) (Reporter Chen Peng) Source: Guangming Daily (January 27, 2022 edition 08)