This paper analyzes the evolution and characteristics of Lienu Zhuan from the Han dynasty to the Six Dynasties

2022-07-30 0 By

In the long history of thousands of years in our country, talented people like stars.And among them, there are many women.The first biographies of women in history were liennvzhuan compiled by Liu Xiang, a royal official in the late Western Han Dynasty. His original intention was to admonish the emperor to get rid of the interference of women in politics and curb the exclusive power of consort clans. Therefore, the standard of the biographies was to highlight the virtuous.In later times, especially during the Six Dynasties, great changes took place in the domestic situation and social structure at that time, so that the standard of talented female biographies in this period also changed accordingly.So what are the specific changes?Let’s start this discussion.A Study of the characteristics of talented women in the Six Dynasties from the Biography of Lienu”The Book of Han” records: “Xiang thought that the king taught from the inside out, starting from the near.Therefore, it adopts the “poem” and “book” contained in the virtuous concubine chastity, flourishing the country and obvious family principles, and when I told them in value, in order of “Lie Female Biography”, all eight chapters, in order to avoid the son of Heaven.”.Before Lienu Zhuan, some literary and historical materials also have sporadic narration about female figures.After liu Xiang sorted out and compiled the old books, he divided them into seven types, a total of 124 female biographical stories, with comments and praises attached, just like a “female history”.In this female history, there are also smart, talented women.But we found that only a few of the women who had been written had full names, and that the rest were either anonymous or incomplete.If the pre-Qin and Chu and Han wars made it impossible to verify the true information of many books due to their ages, errors and misinformation, then some authors still did not present complete names even though they could be sure of the names.For example: E Huang, Female Ying is the daughter of Yao, should follow the father’s surname Tang, but the book does not mention.More successors were named after their father, husband or son, such as Zhao Nanshen’s daughter, Qi Huanwei Ji, Zou Mengke’s mother and so on.2.Although liennvzhuan was written for a woman, almost all the stories are based on serving men.If zhao Kuo’s mother, zhao Kuo’s mother, heard that her son was going to replace veteran General Lian Po as the general of the united Army to resist the invasion of the Qin army, she met king Zhao Xiaocheng and said that Zhao Kuo had no talent to lead the army and hoped that the king of Zhao would withdraw his order.This is to protect her son from war, but also to consider the safety of the country, to remind the monarch of the use of inhuman.Finally, the king of Zhao persisted in his opinion, which led to the crushing defeat of The Zhao army in Changping and zhao Kuo’s death.Fortunately, Zhao’s mother had previously made an appointment with the king to exempt her family from involvement, and Liu Xiang called her benevolent wisdom.There was also a bow worker’s wife, because the king of Jin pinggong test-fired discontent to kill her husband, and to the king of Jin Pinggong bluntly stated the bow string production and the essentials of shooting, successfully let her husband released.There was Also Zhao Jin Nv Juan, who pleaded with Zhao Jianzi for her drunk father who could not ferry, and sailed across the river by boat.Not only let Zhao Jianzi forgive his father drunk dereliction of duty, he also got Zhao Jianzi’s appreciation eventually became his wife.The whole story is about how women’s virtue and wisdom can help men avoid disasters and become successful.3.The Biography of Lienv, which promotes Confucian ethics, is divided into seven chapters, such as mother’s etiquette, wisdom, benevolence, chastity, righteousness, argumentativeness, and evils in value. The eighth chapter is a continuation of the biography, and the author listed can also be attributed to the previous seven chapters.The first six chapters of the seven chapters are devoted to the praise of women, and praise virtuous women, and regard meritocracy as the key to governing the country.At the same time, they emphasize the superiority of men and women, and ask women to abide by etiquette and accept the ethical concepts of three cardinal guides and five chang.In the seventh chapter, it is told by Xia Sister Xi, Shang Daji, Zhou Bao Si, Jin Li Ji and others as a negative textbook, warning the world to spoil ji concubine, lust for beauty, blind abandon righteousness will eventually ruin the country.In short, all the masters in the book are wise, but their wisdom is used in domestic affairs and state affairs, which seems to have nothing to do with themselves.When talking about marriage, Mrs. Xu mu analyzed with her parents that the state of Xu was small and far away, and the state of Qi was large and close, so it would be better to marry with neighboring countries as a dependence.Her argument is very reasonable, but regardless of their future husband’s character, married life is harmonious and happy?He treated himself and his marriage as political appendages.Thus it can be seen that liu Xiang’s brushwork in Lienu Zhuan contains the ideological concept and value pursuit of Confucian classics and ethics.twoThe six Dynasties writing talent female characteristic evolution 1.After completing the description of the characters in Lienu Zhuan, let’s take a look at the description of talented women during the Six Dynasties.The first is to clear the name.Fan Ye, a historian of the Song Dynasty in the Southern Dynasty, introduced his colleague and predecessor, ban Zhao, the first female historian in the Eastern Han Dynasty, in his book of the Later Han dynasty: “She helped cao Shishu’s wife, the daughter of Ban Biao in the same county, and her name was Zhao, styled Hui Ban, and a concubine.”A short paragraph contains Ban Zhao’s family name, given name, Chinese characters and nickname, as well as who her father and husband are clearly explained.Similarly, The Book of the Later Han introduces CAI Wenji as follows: “Chen Liudong sacrificed his wife, and the daughter of CAI Yong in Tongjun was also named Yan and styled Wenji.”.For the eastern Jin talented woman Xie Dao Yun, “Jin Shu” so recorded: “Wang Ning wife Xie, word Yun, ANSI general yi’s daughter also.””, and another version of Jin Lu is: “Lady of Lang ye Wang Ning, Xie of Chen County, name tao Yuan, yi female also..Either way, at least the names of these women are intact, with their fathers’ and husbands’ marks still attached, but with more respect for women than ever before.2.The standard of talented women in The biography of Lienu is generally intelligent and wise, but there is little mention of their specific talents.Only in qiguan Concubine Jing said that Guan Zhong’s concubine was familiar with ancient poems and helped Guan Xiang unlock the argot of Ning Qi, so that the talent was promoted.In the Six Dynasties, the recognition of the talented women was more specific. In the Book of the Later Han, ban Zhao was praised as “erudite and superior”, and CAI Wenji was praised as “erudite and talented in argumentation, and excellent in melody”.”Jin shu” also said Xie Yun: “cong cong have just debate.””And none of these had anything to do with their virtue.Not only that, but their famous works are also celebrated.Ban Zhao succeeded her father and brother to complete the editing and proofreading of the Book of Han, and was regarded as the first strange woman among Chinese historians.Also began to compile “female ring” book, even the imperial concubine to her as a teacher.CAI Wenji is proficient in music, in her exile to the Xiongnu twelve years after returning to the homeland has been changed, and thought of the separation of family and flesh and blood, for a time with mixed feelings, created a famous guqin song “Eighteen Beats of Hujia”, is still a classic guqin song.Liu Yiqing, a literary scholar in the Song Dynasty, said: “Xie Dao Yun has literary talent, and his poems, fu, ci and recitation have been handed down to the world.”.It can be seen that Xie Daoyun is good at poetry, according to the Sui Dynasty recorded her poetry collection has two volumes.Unfortunately, most of them were lost in the turmoil, so now only “Mountaineering” and “Ji Yong Song” are over.It is because of the untiring efforts of historians of the Six Dynasties that these talented women are worthy of the name.3.Histories and Anecdotes These are candid accounts of talented women, along with historical records and anecdotes that give us a different perspective on them.When Ban Zhao made the book of Han, many people came to ask for advice. There was ma Rong, a great scholar, in order to listen to Ban Zhao’s explanation, and to avoid men and women, so he knelt outside the East View library to accept the guidance of Ban Zhao.This shows how high the academic level of Ban Zhao was at that time.Xie Yun is still in the teenage years, an uncle Xie an and family children and nephews together to enjoy the snow, taste asked all: “this have snow like what?”Many nephews answered, and Xie an smiled.Until I heard Xie Yun answer: “Not if willow catkin due to the wind”, happy laugh said wonderful.Later generations with “willow catkin” metaphor refers to women smart poetry talent.Xie Daoyun adult married wang Coagulation, a return, unhappy.Xie an asked his story, Xie Daoyun to husband mediocre to right.It should be noted that Wang Ningzhi was the second son of Wang Xizhi. He had a profound family and was good at cursive script and official script. He had served successively as governor of Jiangzhou, General zuo, and kuaiji internal history.It is obviously not accurate to say that he has no talent to learn.However, in the eyes of Xie Yun, such a character is also mediocre, more prominent Xie Yun outstanding talent.The combination of historical biography and anecdotes has been a characteristic of the biography of talented women since the Six Dynasties.3.An analysis of the evolution of writing standards for talented women in the Six Dynasties.On the prevalence of Metaphysics and the weakening of Confucian Confucian Ethics, the Confucian Confucian ethics of the Han Dynasty had a strong binding effect on people’s ideas, especially for women.Although Lienu Zhuan advocates virtue, brings out goodness and restrains sex, it also inculcates chastity to women.Ban Zhao’s “Women’s Commandments” is also advocating the idea of one life and male superiority over women, and embodies, formalizes and standardizes the restrictions of ethical code on women.However, both Confucian classics and ethical teachings aim to build a stable order structure for the ruling class.At the end of the Eastern Han Dynasty, the imperial eunuch and consort took turns to monopolize power, which destroyed this structure.Since the Six Dynasties, there have been a series of treason events, such as wei usurping han, Jin Usurping Wei, Song usurping Jin, Qi usurping Song, Liang usurping Qi, Chen usurping Liang and so on.During this period, those loyal and righteous people who adhered to their beliefs were almost all killed. The remaining intellectuals, who wanted to be wise and keep their lives, but also could not give up their official rank and honour, gradually turned from fierce actions to talk openly and began to praise and study Lao Zhuang metaphysics.As metaphysics became the mainstream of the upper society, Confucian classics gradually declined, and the binding power of ethical education became loose.This also makes the description of talented women get rid of the stereotyped virtuous routine in the past.2.In the pre-Qin and Han dynasties, history books and biographies were assigned by the government and no one else could intervene.By the end of the Western Jin dynasty and the beginning of the Eastern Jin Dynasty, a large number of aristocratic families from the north came to the South to start a new life in the South.Some of them had their social and political status greatly weakened, but their knowledge and talent remained, and gradually formed a new class of scholars.During this period, many people wrote history privately.For example, there are eight versions of The Book of the Later Han written by Xie Shen, Yuan Hong and Zhang Fan (only fan Ye’s version has survived in the end).In addition, the rulers of the Southern Dynasty started because of martial arts, and then turned from martial arts to literature, so the formation of popular culture orientation of the new literati class.”Yutai New Yong” included the works of Ban Jieyu, Bao Linghui, Liu Lingxian and other women writers.Su Hui, one of the greatest palindromes, also wrote brocade poems called Xuanji.It can be seen that the downward popularization of knowledge makes the writing standard of the biography of talented women closer to nature and less ornamentation.Conclusion From the han dynasty to the Six Dynasties, the comparison of writing standards of talented women’s biographies shows that the whole process of evolution tends to be real, natural, liberated and progressive.Besides the change of social class structure, the change of mainstream thought is also the main factor driving the evolution process.References 1, Commentaries on Lienu Biographies 2, Female heroes in Chinese Dynasties 3, Brief History of Wei, Jin and Southern and Northern Dynasties 4, New Changes in Style and Academic Culture of southern Dynasties